Finally, on September 16, church leaders, Daniel H. Wells paramount among them, concluded Nauvoo could not hold out, and sought peace terms with the mob. With his permission, two units of the reorganized Nauvoo Legion were gainfully employed by the United States to protect western mail and telegraph lines from Indian attacks in what is today Utah and Wyoming, but saw no action. Young led the Latter-day Saints to what later became the Territory of Utah. Some of those who crossed in late February did so on ice, as the wide river froze solid in sub-zero temperatures. Young, Brigham, and Everett L. Cooley. There are however some reported incidents in diaries of Saints concerning gunfire exchange between legion members and mobs during the Nauvoo era (citation needed). Impoverished and poorly equipped, the Mormons crossed the Mississippi River in search of a new home. A number of diarists refer to the freezing as a miracle, even though, notes one commentator, "it was a miracle that nearly froze a couple … The Church reacquired the temple lot in 1937 and rebuilt the Nauvoo Temple on its original site in 2002. Elle fut fondée en 1840 par les mormons qui y construisirent un temple, mais en furent expulsés en 1846. All three Spanish cannons, which were brought to Salt Lake City on pallets, were mounted on carriages copied from the mountain howitzer carriage, probably in preparation for the Mormon defense against Johnston's army in 1857. Leaving the main body of the Saints traveling westward, in this chapter I wish to tell you about what happened to those who remained in Nauvoo; and by the way, this is the last chapter of this little history in which mobs will play an important part. Since the town was so small, ammunition and weapons were few and far between, although thanks to the efforts of firearms pioneer John Browning a few of the defenders had early repeating rifles. A small artillery piece, an 1841 12-pound mountain howitzer was issued to the territorial militia. Consequently, members of the Church were located in Nauvoo a little more than 7 years. On 10 September 1846 a group of Mormons in Nauvoo, Illinois found themselves under attack and were forced to defend themselves against their fellow countrymen. On 10 September 1846 a group of Mormons in Nauvoo, Illinois found themselves under attack and were forced to defend themselves against their fellow countrymen. Legion survival after death of Joseph Smith. [citation needed]. “Ugly carnivals” – At Least 20,000 Women Had Their Heads Shaved After Liberation, Crew Finds USS Hornet in a Graveyard of WWII Ships, French Couple Discovered WWII Cache of Weapons Hidden in Their Home, Live Like a Bond Villain, 3 Remote Napoleonic-Era Forts For Sale, Fossil Actually a Wartime Grenade: Explodes in Civilian’s Kitchen Sink, Eleven Military Uniforms That Got Soldiers Killed, ‘Barn Finds’, Mosquito, P-51 & Others, The Aviation Equivalent of Aladdin’s Cave, Out of fuel: Pilot Landed on a Container Ship – The Ship Claimed the Plane Under Salvage Rights (Watch), Attack of the Dead Men! When they resumed their journey home, they bought two cannons from Sutter, a four pounder and a six pounder. The previous fall, Church leaders had developed plans for a large exodus, intending to organize 25 companies of 100 wagons each that would leave in the spring of 1846. It was carried to Salt Lake by the early party that occasionally used it as a speakers podium. On September 12, 1846, occurred the battle of Nauvoo. In exchange, the Mormons would leave the city as fast as they could. Tribulations and hardships were many as the winter set in early and the Mormon refugees were without the proper food, clothing and shelter. Twenty Mormon militiamen and many Native Americans died in the Walker War. Sutter wrote a letter to the pioneer society in the 1870s where he said that his cannons, except for one Russian 4 pounder, which he donated to a museum in San Francisco, were all Spanish guns. The so-called Anti-Mormon Party, or, as they preferred to call themselves, the "Regulators," were bent on driving the remaining citizens out by force despite the well-known fact that most had gone and the rest were making plans to do so. The defenders also modified a steamboat shaft into a primitive cannon. He was a lieutenant colonel of the 32nd Regiment of the Illinois militia, and he helped control the violence being perpetuated against the Latter Day Saints. After the Saints left Illinois, the temple was destroyed by fire and a tornado. (Carl Christian Anton), 1831-1912: Description: Painting of the Battle of Nauvoo, during which eight hundred vigilantes attacked those remaining in the city. Tanner Trust Fund, University of Utah Library, 1980 found online at: Learn how and when to remove this template message, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, https://collections.lib.utah.edu/details?id=328944, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/BYUIBooks/id/3168, "Uniforms and Equipment of the Black Hawk War and the Mormon War", "Nauvoo Legion, 1840–1845 — A Unique Military Organization", "Series 2210: Territorial Militia Records, 1849–1877, 1905–[ca.1917]", List of Reorganized Restorationist churches, Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite) history, Doctrine and Covenants (Book of Commandments), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nauvoo_Legion&oldid=1000193416#After_the_death_of_Joseph_Smith, History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Military units and formations established in 1840, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Utah, Articles lacking in-text citations from May 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Protect Mormon settlers from domestic and foreign enemies, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 01:45. Records for the weapons issued to the other companies are missing. The valiant defense of the Saints is thus described by Bancroft: On the 10th of September the posse, now more than a thousand strong, with wagons, equipments, and every preparation for a campaign, approached Nauvoo and encamped at … Many of them took time to pan for gold and they were quite successful. The iron Spanish 2 and 6 pound cannons remain in storage in Salt Lake City. Led by Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement and a mayor of Nauvoo, the Legion quickly became a formidable concentration of military power. By Sharon Lindbloom 13 February 2017. Rather than employ the Legion to protect Nauvoo from increased mob violence, Young directed Nauvoo's tens of thousands of citizens to migrate peacefully to the western part of the continent which wasn't yet part of the United States and they founded the territory of Utah. In 1870 the Utah Territorial governor, J. Wilson Shaffer forced the Legion inactive unless he ordered otherwise. An area memorialized by the somber Far West cemetery and LDS Temple. [citation needed] (Antonga Black Hawk was a Ute and has no connection to the Illinois Sauk chief Black Hawk of the 1830s.) The Battle Of Nauvoo. Between December 1845 and February 1846, nearly 6,000 Latter-day Saints received their endowments in this house of the Lord before moving west. The Nauvoo Legion survived the loss of its commanding officer, Joseph Smith, when Brigham Youngautomatically assumed command as the new church president in August 1844, though he had never previously been active in Legion activities because Young was in England on a proselytizing mission for several years and only returned home to Nauvoo when hearing of the prophet's death to assist the family and church and citizens of Nauvoo during that sad tragedy (citation needed). On December 16 the governor signed it into law, granting Smith and the city of Nauvoo broad powers. The Legion tended to be very top-heavy, in that there was a disproportionate number of high-ranking officers to regular soldiers. For additional information, visit: www.untoldnauvoostories.com . Previously, from May to June 1834 Joseph Smith led an expedition of Latter Day Saints, known as Zion's Camp from Kirtland, Ohio to Clay County, Missouri in an attempt to regain land from which the Saints had been expelled by non-Mormon settlers. In 1848 Wells arrived in the Utah Territory and began working toward the organization of the State of Deseret. On June 7, 1844, William Law, a disaffected Mormon, published the first and only edition of the Nauvoo Expositor. This rank is one step above Major General, which most contemporary militias employed as their commanding rank. Earlier in the spring, several thousand Mormons had left the town to travel westward. A 6-pound iron cannon, probably the other battalion cannon and a smaller, but similar, 2 pound cannon were in the warehouse. Having barricaded the roads into the town, the mob settled in for a siege, and both they and the defenders took potshots at each other throughout the skirmish. The temple was dedicated in the spring of 1846. While in Nauvoo, a gun in the hands p. 226 of a militia officer was recognized by William Pickett as belonging to one of the harvesters. The so-called Battle of Nauvoo was one in a long list of struggles for the LDS Church as its members traveled ever westward in search of a homestead of their own. [2] The Legion was organized into two regiments (called cohorts) of infantry and one regiment of cavalry. New Books From The Nauvoo Press . Beginning in early February 1846, Mormons left Nauvoo for a new home in the west. The bronze 4 pounder was found to have the crest of King Carlos 3 of Spain. On February 4, the first wave of covered wagons ferried across the freezing Mississippi River. Despite this exodus, a Mormon presence remains in Nauvoo to this day. Nauvoo, ville des États-Unis , dans le comté de Hancock sur le Mississippi, aux confins de l'Iowa. It described in lurid prose all the evil things they suspected Joseph and other leaders of doing. 150 locals managed to rally to defend the town. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Mormon Battalion (United States Army) (1846–1847), Mormon Battalion – five companies (534–559), Utah Territorial Military Commander Robert T. Burton, Utah Territorial Governor Stephen S. Harding. Personal arms were also used. The provenance of the 2 pounder is currently unknown. Soon thereafter, the Nauvoo charter was revoked, and the Nauvoo Legion lost its official sanction as an arm of the Illinois militia.[1]. On 31 July 1846, these Saints, led by Sam Brannon, reached Yerba Buena (present-day San Francisco), a … When the Mormon Battalion was enlisted in July, 1846, about 450 Model 1816 muskets were issued to the infantry. Between February 4 and March 1, 1846, … Quarantine of Nauvoo July 11, 1846 beating of eight workmen by Major John McAuley’smen Warrant issued for the perpetrators…arrests made Pontoosuc Regulators gain five hostages in retaliation Prisoners of both groups released by the end of July, 1846 July 21, McDonough County Sheriff arrives in Nauvoo with writs Continued Tensions; Crops remain in the fields. Today the mountain howitzer is on display in the Fort Douglas museum in Salt Lake City. Sites on Nauvoo's eastern and southern edges turned into a battlefield in September 10-16, 1846 in another wave of anti-Mormon sentiment. Fig. In 1847, Mormon leader Brigham Young reformed the Nauvoo Legion into a fully functional paramilitary force, which was organized into sub-units for each of the Utah counties as the Deseret Territorial Militia akin to their contemporaries the Army of the Republic of Texas and the Texas Rangers.[4]. The Mormon community was initially welcomed and expanded rapidly into a permanent, thriving center of Mormon religion, but over the cour… [citation needed]. Eventually, he left Nauvoo and arrived in Utah in 1849, and it was there where his name would be made. Everett joined the Army in 1843 and fought at the Battle of Nauvoo in the Illinois Mormon War. The trail’s end, in far off Utah Territory, was a difficult, perilous road those who had just left Illinois had little choice but to traverse. Their temple, once ransacked and defiled, also remains to this day, marking the starting point of yet another trail of persecution in America. It, however, was not as cooperative in imposing the colonial regime as federal authorities would have liked. Mobs forced this last group from the city in mid-September, It is a frequently forgotten event in church history known as the Battle of Nauvoo, and it occurred after the majority of the Saints had left the city earlier in the year. Battle of Nauvoo: Sept. 12-17, 1846 Mary Ann Stearns Winter recorded, “Our home was only one block from the Temple and we could hear the reports given out by the sentinel on the tower, to the guards on the grounds below. Beginning with this and subse- quent issues, some of the men, women and children from the 1842 Census of Nauvoo will be identified. Camp of Israel schedules and reports 1845-1849 (Salt Lake City, Utah: Church History Library), entry for William Sommerville, folder "Companies of 10 reports, 1846 April" (#7), image 3, line 14. These were thought at that time to have come from Sutter's purchase of the Russian Fort Ross and to have been either Russian or French cannons. In 1894, the former Utah Territorial Militia was reactivated and officially designated the Utah National Guard. By the summer of 1846, the only people left in Nauvoo were a few hundred Latter-day Saints, most of whom were poor, sick or otherwise incapable of beginning the trek west. The remaining stragglers’ continued presence in the town angered the locals in surrounding settlements, and in standard American fashion, they gathered their arms to force the Mormons out of their state the hard way. In 2001 three Spanish guns were identified in the LDS Church storage facility in Salt Lake City. The two sides quickly reached an agreement thanks to Mormon desperation and easy mob satisfaction.The agreement was fairly simple. The Mormons surrendered the city–including their temple–to the mob. At its peak, the militia had, by conservative estimates, at least 2,500 troops, in comparison to the approximately 8,500 troops within the entire United States Army as of 1845. Among these was the authority to create a "body of independent militarymen". On 4 February 1846—the same day Charles Shumway ferried across the Mississippi River from Nauvoo, starting the Church’s exodus west—the ship Brooklyn sailed from New York harbor. In early 1846, the majority of the Latter Day Saints left the city. It was there Smith was killed by a mob. Tribulations and hardships were many as the winter set in early and the Mormon refugees were without the proper food, clothing and shelter. By sniping from the surrounding woodlands guerilla style, the Mormons managed to fend off the mob for an entire week. In Utah, the Deseret Militia and Utah Territorial Militia used the official name of the Nauvoo Legion. 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