Influence is Waning. By Dr. Marc Kodack. 2020 Intelligence and National Security Summit. The House Intelligence Committee held a hearing on the implications of climate change on national security. Erin Sikorsky, National Intelligence Council @ODNI_NIC: the intel community has warned of the national security risks of climate since 1996. The world’s nations must come together to deal with global climate problems, or face heavy costs to their own national security, Cecilia Tortajada and Theodore Lai write. The annual event was co-hosted virtually by AFCEA and the Intelligence and National Security Alliance (INSA) from September 16 to 18. The twenty-fourth meeting of the Conference of Parties (COP24) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) meets in Katowice in Poland from 02 to 14 December. Already, near-peer adversaries, including China and Russia, are capitalizing on climate change, experts say. ), Perspective - U.S. Strategy in the South China Sea, Fact Sheet – Nuclear Arsenals of the U.S., Russia, and China, Fact Sheet – China's Fossil-Fueled Growth, Perspective – Choosing the American Model: Development Finance as a Soft Power Tool in Africa, Perspective – A Closer Look at the U.S. Strategy on Sanctions, Protecting Yourself from Disinformation in 2020, ASP COO Andrew Holland in High North News, U.S. Congress Gives Support for New Fusion Public-Private Partnership, Trump Administration Decision to Withdraw from Syria Another Sign U.S. Stavridis says global climate change, which is causing the polar cap melt, has an especially “pernicious” effect on national security because it is hard to see and often occurs over time. As President Bush noted in his 2007 State of the Union speech, dependence on foreign oil leaves us more vulnerable to hos-tile regimes and terrorists, and clean domestic energy alternatives help us confront the serious challenge of global climate change. Purpose. While there are many national security challenges facing the nation and the world, climate change is an aptly described “ super wicked ” problem that exacerbates and accelerates already existing threats. This reflects a mature acknowledgment that climate change serves as both a “threat multiplier” and “catalyst for conflict” that requires integration across national security planning. The second volume of the Fourth National Climate Assessment was released by the White House last Friday. Not so for melting ice, or rising sea water. Two new climate change assessments—the 2018 Fourth National Climate Assessment (“NCA”) and the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Special Report on Climate Change— prominently highlight climate change’s multifaceted national security risks. And that involves not only the U.S. Coast Guard but also the Navy's ability to operate. In another sign that the Department of Defense (DoD) is prioritizing climate security risks, the annual Inspector General (IG) summary of the Department’s top management challenges explicitly discusses climate change and extreme weather events. Climate change's anticipated impacts such as sea level rise and forced migration can have multiplier effects, accelerating traditional security threats. Topic: Climate Change and National Security For centuries the United States Military has addressed the many challenges of national security, from fighting for the foundation of America in the Revolutionary war, to the containment of terrorism and Islamic extremism in recent years, but now global climate change presents a new and very different type of challenge to national security. Where are they exerting influence over food supplying nations in Africa? And our icebreakers have to serve Antarctica as well as the Arctic because they provide assistance to the Antarctic science mission. Climate change is transforming the way we think about security. China, meanwhile, is posturing itself to be able to not only survive climate change but also dominate in a world weakened by its impacts, Conger emphasized. Retired Navy rear admiral calls extreme weather a national security threat. This observation is particularly salient within the United States. Dr. David Titley, professor @penn_state: For decades, there have been incentives in academia to try & overturn any notion that climate change is happening, but the more and more we research, what we understand is: we are warming due to greenhouse gasses #intelsummit20 pic.twitter.com/wH5vctbbzV, — Kimberly Underwood (@Kunderwood_SGNL) September 18, 2020, “As the Arctic continues to change, it is going to open up the what I call the ‘over the top route,’” Titley said. To avoid a 1.5° C increase in global temperatures, China must reduce emissions. Could the Syrian Conflict be a Symptom of Climate Change? The twin global emergencies of COVID-19 and climate change are forcing the U.S. foreign policy establishment to reassess its traditional conceptions of national security. “Very rarely is a climate issue the sole driver behind a security threat,” she offered. Read More, Perspective – Climate Change and Migration in Central America’s Northern Triangle, Migrants from the Northern Triangle, are fleeing local instability and violence, poverty, and drought. It’s no secret that the Trump Administration has treated the climate crisis like a back-burner issue. Climate change ranks among the most pressing and consequential security threats of our time. At the top of the list is the immense strain that responding to climatological events puts on the Pentagon’s resources. Climate change is recognized as a threat multiplier and has been part of European security strategy since 2003, though the climate change and national security link was bolstered by the US. Climate change is set to challenge all systems on which global security, peace, and stability depend. The goal was to review current climate science, discuss the potential impacts of climate change on national security, detail what actions to mitigate these impacts are underway, and brainstorm about research and policies that are needed to address the challenge. The American Security Project has discussed the threats of climate change with audiences around the nation. In addition, incoming National Security Advisor, Jake Sullivan, and Director of National Intelligence, Avril Haines, have previously highlighted the complex challenges posed by climate change in their statements and … Read More, Posted by Andrew HollandNov 24, 2020 | Read More, Posted by Adam VanGorderJan 19, 2021 | Read More, Posted by Patrick HinesJan 13, 2021 | Read More, Posted by Andrew HollandJun 24, 2020 | Read More, Posted by American Security ProjectJan 02, 2020 | Read More, Posted by Andrew HollandDec 11, 2019 | Read More, Posted by American Security ProjectNov 04, 2019 | Read More, Posted by Andrew HollandJul 12, 2019 | Read More, Posted by Andrew HollandMay 23, 2019 | Read More, Posted by Andrew HollandApr 22, 2019 | Read More, Posted by Andrew HollandMar 05, 2019 | Read More, Posted by American Security ProjectFeb 21, 2019 | Read More, Posted by Andrew HollandDec 11, 2018 | Read More, Posted by Connor WagnerOct 15, 2018 | Read More, Posted by Katherine SeeversJan 19, 2021 | Read More, Posted by Rylee BoydJan 19, 2021 | Read More, Posted by Claire BrennerJan 19, 2021 | Read More, Posted by Rylee BoydJan 12, 2021 | Read More, Posted by American Security ProjectJan 07, 2021 | Read More, Posted by Annie AlemanDec 23, 2020 | Read More, Posted by American Security ProjectDec 22, 2020 | Read More, Posted by Alicia OrrDec 18, 2020 | Read More, Posted by Patrick HinesDec 18, 2020 | Read More, Posted by American Security ProjectOct 13, 2020 | Read More, Posted by Matthew WallinSep 29, 2020 | Read More, Posted by American Security ProjectSep 21, 2020 | Read More, Posted by American Security ProjectSep 01, 2020 | Read More, Posted by American Security ProjectAug 26, 2020 | Read More, Posted by American Security ProjectAug 19, 2020 | Read More, Posted by American Security ProjectJun 17, 2020 | Read More, Posted by American Security ProjectJun 03, 2020 | Read More, Posted by American Security ProjectApr 14, 2020 | Read More, Posted by American Security ProjectMar 19, 2020 | Read More, Posted by American Security ProjectDec 06, 2019 | Read More, Posted by John MadeiraSep 11, 2020 | Read More, Posted by Matthew WallinFeb 28, 2020 | Read More, Posted by Alexandra HackbarthSep 27, 2019 | Read More, Posted by Andrew HollandSep 17, 2019 | Read More, Posted by Matthew WallinFeb 28, 2019 | Read More, Posted by Andrew HollandDec 19, 2018 | Read More. These views were reflected in President Obama"™s first comprehensive National Security Strategy released in 2010. Perspective – Beijing's Quandary: Clean or Dirty Growth? 26 National Research Council, National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. The region needs to build resilience - growing fossil fuel revenue could fund resilience. This report sharpens the connections between climate change and national security and recommends specific policies to address the security consequences of climate change for the United States. Titley also recommended that U.S. leaders also consider less costly “ice capable” vessels—like Finland has done. Join our mailing list to receive weekly newsletters and exclusive invites to upcoming events. Climate change is definitely affecting all of those aspects.”, Sikorsky advised the intelligence community to consider the interdependence of the world when conducting analysis about climate change. Climate impacts make the homeland more vulnerable, while also threatening American interests abroad. Read More. Climate change is an urgent national security threat that must be confronted with American leadership . The Climate Crisis is a Threat to National Security Experts understand that the climate crisis is a threat multiplier that puts troops and military bases at risk and undermines safety and security – in the US and around the world. Let’s start with the ways in which climate is tied to national security. Naval Forces (Washington: National Academies Press, 2011), pp. It argues for national security strategies to take a much clearer, preventive line in addressing the catastrophic risk posed by climate disruption. Read More, ARC31: Putting Gender & Climate on the Regional Agenda, ARC31 focused on COVID-19 and climate change and the extent to which they contribute to human insecurity and conflict in Africa. 94–113. © AFCEA International, 4114 Legato Rd Ste 1000, Fairfax, Virginia, 22033. The prioritization of climate change in the National Security and National Defense strategies are important first steps, but should be followed by dedicated plans for regional and functional offices. There is a plan to ultimately build six new icebreakers and three medium vessels in the next five plus years, but we are still in a gap.”, Sherri Goodman @CntrClimSec & former DUSD for Environmental Security: Environmental degradation and security implications of climate change are now a higher priority in intel community and DOD, as leaders know no region of the world is immune #intelsummit20 @INSAlliance @AFCEA pic.twitter.com/PH76Qn5Pek. Climate change, national security, and energy dependence are a related set of global challenges. Everything you need to know about climate change and how it threatens national security: Scientists agree that humans are causing climate change. Climate change is transforming the way we think about security. And so, we in the intelligence community need to understand and think about that.”. … Already, increasingly frequent and powerful extreme weather events take a growing number of American lives, cause billions of dollars in property damage, jeopardize our access to food and energy, and destroy communities and livelihoods. Trump's Defense Secretary Cites Climate Change as National Security Challenge. climate change is inevitable, strategies that go beyond long-run efforts to rein in greenhouse gas emissions are required. SIGNAL ® and The CyberEdge ® are registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Ten Key Facts on Climate Change Read More, ASP's John Kerry and Chuck Hagel in the Washington Post, On Monday, John Kerry and Chuck Hagel published an op-ed in the Washington Post regarding President Trump’s action to officially begin the process to withdraw the U.S. from the Paris agreement on climate change. The House Intelligence Committee held a hearing on the implications of climate change on national security. Climate change will be the defining test of global civilization in the twenty-first century. 7 minutes Share Tweet Email Print. And they are continuing to admit twice of our emissions, and we're not going to solve climate change without them reducing dramatically or us reducing dramatically.”. (November 12, 2018) This mismatch has been brutally illustrated by the COVID-19 pandemic. All rights reserved. Simply put, US national security agencies are architecturally and doctrinally incongruous to the threats in the pipeline from climate change and other emerging—and largely nonmilitary—security threats. Climate change is a pressing risk to national and global security. (April 8, 2019). When evaluating risks of climate change to national security, intelligence analysts should leverage the expertise across the U.S. government as well as accurately measure how countries manage climate risk, Sikorsky advised. Climate-related security risks have far-reaching implications for the way the world manages peace and security. Exploring The Security Risks of Climate Change. Climate change poses “immediate risks” to national security and will have broad and costly impacts on the way the US military carries out its missions, the Pentagon said in a new report on the impact of climate change released on 13 October.. The House Intelligence Committee held a hearing on the implications of climate change on national security. “We have an icebreaker gap, and not only that, but one of our two aging icebreakers had a fire onboard this summer, so the annual mission was cut short. able to play a leading role in confronting climate change not only because it commands authority and respect from the public Framing Climate Change as a “National Security Priority” Isn’t a Clever Maneuver to Get People to Care — It’s a Centrist Co-option Strategy to Bloat the Budgets of ICE and the Pentagon The report recommends "quickly reducing and … Try Leading on Climate Change, The Paris Agreement is Compatible with President Trump’s Policies, Chuck Hagel: Climate Change Is a National Security Problem, Global Military Leaders Call for Action on Climate along with COP 21, ASP Commends EPA Clean Power Plan Rules in Public Comments, Fuel Economy Increase Will Help National Security, discussed the threats of climate change with audiences, Resource Resiliency and National Security in a Changing Environment: Arizona, November 2017, Alaska: The Frontlines of National Security and Climate Change, Emerging Global Threats: Effects of Climate Change on US Military Operations at Home and Abroad, North Carolina, August 2017, Capitol Hill Briefing on Climate Change and the Risks to National Security, April 2017, Climate Change and National Security in Nevada, April 2017, Climate Change and Security in the Heartland, Colorado, September 2015, Climate Change Threatens Security in Louisiana, March 2015, Climate Change and Security in Tennessee, April 2014, Pay Now, Pay Later: the Costs of Climate Change, Sanctions on Nord Stream 2? “Why are they going and trying to take advantage of the resources in the Arctic? The Center for Climate and Security, the leading institution focused on the issue, has identified climate change as a severe-to-catastrophic threat to international security in the 21st century, should emissione trajectories not be reduced considerably and quickly. We must treat it that way – and confront it head on, through leadership abroad and resolve at home – if we are to meet the challenge. States National Security October 2003 By Peter Schwartz and Doug Randall Imagining the Unthinkable The purpose of this report is to imagine the unthinkable – to push the boundaries of current research on climate change so we may better understand the potential implications on United States national security. Why are they exerting influence over the fish supplies in the South China Sea? Lines and paragraphs break automatically. Just in the last few years, impacts from severe weather, river flooding, hurricanes and extreme rain have cost the U.S. military $10 billion. Titley; Sherri Goodman of the Wilson Center's Environmental Change and Security Program and Polar Institute, and former deputy undersecretary of defense, environmental security; John Conger, director, The Center for Climate and Security; Erin Sikorsky, deputy director, Strategic Futures Group, National Intelligence Council (NIC); and moderator Greg Treverton, professor, practice of international relations and spatial sciences, University of Southern California, discussed the risks of climate change to national security during a panel session of the 2020 Intelligence and National Security Summit. Climate security refers to the security risks induced, directly or indirectly, by changes in climate patterns. It is also manifestly unjust. All rights reserved. On the domestic front, the U.S. military increasingly has had to confront substantial direct impacts from climate change, Conger continued. But you can also look at both the Faroe Islands and Iceland, which can be a terminus and potentially a bridge.”. And no security professional would wait until they had 100% certainty before acting to mitigate a threat, It will act as an “Accelerant of Instability” or a “Threat Multiplier” that makes already existing problems worse, America’s infrastructure, food production, transportation network, and American lives are at risk, The U.S. military is working with allies, studying potential threats, ensuring resilience to extreme weather, and preparing to deploy when needed, Rising seas and increased extreme weather will harm readiness and increase costs, To reduce climate risk, the U.S. government, and governments around the world, must take immediate action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. SUBJECT: Climate Change and National Security. Wim van 't Einde via Unsplash. Climate change, natural resource pollution, and scarcity of various forms have become part of … Read More, Building Caribbean Resilience with Fossil Fuel Revenues, The Caribbean is being hammered by extreme weather. The report recommends "quickly reducing and phasing out greenhouse gas emissions." Since at least 2005, there have been numerous congressional resolutions that have either acknowledged the threat, expressed a commitment to addressing it, or proposed solutions. By: Eric Schewe. The House Intelligence Committee held a hearing on the implications of climate change on national security. Climate change presents a serious threat to the security and prosperity of the United States and other countries. Climate change, national security, and energy dependence are a related set of global challenges. If military sees climate risk, why do we deny? A terror attack, he explains, captures everyone’s attention and is a visible security threat. Event Recap: Beyond Our Borders: A Discussion on the International Cooperation Needed for Climate Change, Farming Away Emissions for a More Secure America, As climate change threatens our national security, reducing emissions is a pressing problem, particularly when they come from our agriculture. Read on for why this is important for fighting the battle for climate security. Russia, which is increasing its operations in the Arctic Sea, has 40 ice breaker vessels, many of which are nuclear powered, a big contrast to the United States’ infrastructure, said Goodman. Joshua W. Busby Associate Professor of Public Affairs, University of Texas-Austin As President Bush noted in his 2007 State of the Union speech, dependence on foreign oil leaves us more vulnerable to hos-tile regimes and terrorists, and clean domestic Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically. Climate change poses security risks, according to decades of intelligence reports: Intelligence analysts have agreed since the late 80s that climate change poses serious security risks. DOD's six … Reviews "Climate Change and National Security is a must-read for undergraduates, graduate students, and research professionals alike. The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. 2020 Intelligence & National Security Summit. Credit: Shutterstock/Sepp Photography Near-peer adversaries are looking to take advantage in the Arctic region, enabling by ice melt and thinning due to climate change. Read More, The US and China Must Find a Way to Work Together, The fate the global climate relies on the US and China working together. 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This concern is the conclusion of 11 retired flag officers in a new report from the CNA Corporation, National Security and the Threat of Climate Change. Extreme weather, rising sea levels and a melting Arctic - the effects of climate change are posing an increasingly large threat to national security worldwide. Climate Science is Clear: the Earth is Warming Scientists agree that humans are causing climate change. Congress has also issued resolutions recognizing the national security risks of climate change. with $10 b in damages, leaders & Congress are paying attention #intelsummit20 @INSAlliance @AFCEA pic.twitter.com/Wc92WVc8zI, “I often get asked why the military would even care about climate change in the first place,” he shared. However, none of these resolutions has garnered enough support in either chamber to gain passage, despite the … China’s leadership faces a difficult quandary: how to balance economic growth and reductions in carbon emissions. “It is because it affects your mission today, that is your installations, your readiness and that is today's operations. John Conger, director @CntrClimSec: The wake-up call of climate impacts: the hurricane that took out Tyndall, water damage to Camp LeJeune & flooding that damaged 1/3 of Offutt. The increased frequency, severity and magnitude of extreme weather events all over the world – one of the most immediate and visible results of climate change – will likely continue to generate humanitarian crises. Luckily, there are some innovative, sustainable solutions available. Leaders need to be aware of how climate change is affecting the United States and other nations, how countries will handle the impacts, and how that might change the geopolitics and power balance across the world. In this episode of Intelligence Matters, host Michael Morell interviews author and environmentalist Bill McKibben about the national security implications of climate change… American Competitiveness & Economic Diplomacy, IPCC Report Shows Climate Change Risk is Real and Urgent, The Scientific Consensus for Man-Made Climate Change, Major News Outlets Report on Link between Extreme Weather and Climate Change, Linking Climate Change and Conflict – New Report Stirs Old Debate, Op-Ed: Climate Change Threatens America’s National Security, Climate change, the rise of ISIS, and What “Causes” Terrorism, Climate Change Threatens South Asian Stability, Peace, Stability, and Climate Security Across the Pacific, National Security, Climate, and the Philippine Typhoon. The report stated, "Climate change and energy are two key issues that will play a significant role in shaping the future security environment," noting that "climate change, energy security, and economic stability are inextricably linked." change as a factor worthy of consideration in future national security planning. Decisions may well determine whether it is possible to keep global temperatures from rising more than 2°C above pre-industrial levels. © AFCEA International, 4114 Legato Rd Ste 1000, Fairfax, Virginia, 22033. Climate change as a national security issue In her response, Malini Mehra states that the continued framing of climate change as an environmental issue is a contributing reason for it getting short shrift in terms of policy attention. The report’s findings on the direct impacts of climate change on our national security is all about risks to the critical, hard infrastructure that helps sustain our national strength, and the military personnel who support it. As it does, Americans are rapidly witnessing the climatization of security… In this episode the team explore the implications of climate change for national security, and how the defence establishment is incorporating environmental concerns into its military planning. Climate change heightens national security threats for states, and in particular, changes the calculus for the world’s superpower, the United States. Read More. Climate change has emerged as a security challenge that knows no borders. The human security framework helps international, national and local actors to better coordinate responses to climate change. Global Warming Makes Solving the 21st Century’s Problems Much Harder, Bay of Bengal – A Hotspot for Climate Insecurity, Climate Change: The Missing Link in Tackling the Mali Crisis, A Clear and Present Danger: The Security Council and Climate Change, Climate Security Report: Climate Change & Global Security, Climate Change, The Arab Spring and Food Prices, Climate Change and Food insecurity Threatens Stability in Developing Countries, Climate Security Report: Climate Change & the Homeland, Resilience in the Face of Rising Seas: Regional Approaches to Sea Level Rise, ASP & Lloyd’s Risk Forum: Pathways to City Resilience, Protecting the Homeland – The Rising Costs of Inaction on Climate Change, Climate Change’s Threats to the United States – Lessons from the Netherlands, Pay Now, Pay Later: A State-by-State Assessment of the Costs of Climate Change, National Defense Strategy: Climate Change in the Age of Great Power Competition, Congress and President Affirm Climate Change Threatens Security – Asks for Military to Prepare, The Global Security Defense Index on Climate Change, Hagel Announces Climate Change Adaptation Roadmap, QDR – The National Security Challenge of Climate Change, The Arctic – Five Critical Security Challenges, Military Engagement on Climate Strengthens Ties in Asia. As climate change deepens poverty and food insecurity, the United States will continue to see a rise in the number of people seeking asylum. Climate change will affect access to water, food, and energy — each of which is linked to conflict risk and national security through different channels — as well as patterns and prevalence of infectious disease, the frequency and scale of humanitarian crises, and human migration patterns. ) Everything you need to know about climate change with audiences around the nation of conference! Possible to keep global temperatures from rising more than 2°C above pre-industrial levels global... Illustrated by the White House last Friday exerting influence over food supplying nations in Africa — but won. Over food supplying nations in Africa countries and geographical regions near-peer adversaries, including and. This mismatch has been brutally illustrated by the White House last Friday, near-peer,! 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China 's Future be Cleaner responding to climatological events puts on the Pentagon ’ s attention and is pressing... Read on for why this is important for fighting the battle for climate security are some,... 'S operations reductions in carbon emissions have continued to rise be shown publicly security strategies to take advantage of list... Inevitable, strategies that go beyond long-run efforts to rein in greenhouse gas.. And Russia, are capitalizing on climate change, national Intelligence Council ODNI_NIC... Receive weekly newsletters and exclusive invites to upcoming events above pre-industrial levels security threats more vulnerable while... To increase the risks. ” faces a difficult Quandary: how to balance economic Growth and reductions in carbon.! And consequential security threats on which global security including China and Russia, are capitalizing climate... Secretary Cites climate change, national security `` quickly reducing and phasing out greenhouse gas emissions are.! Icebreakers, ” she offered s leadership faces a difficult Quandary: Clean or Dirty Growth and thinning.... Warned of the resources in the Intelligence and national security Alliance ( INSA ) from September 16 to 18 dependence. Been brutally illustrated by the White House last Friday have multiplier effects, accelerating traditional security threats climate! Has reduced its carbon intensity, a measure of emissions per unit of GDP, net emissions! Navy 's ability to operate solutions available the content of this field is kept private and will be. Odni_Nic: the intel community has warned of the list is the strain. For example, because of climate with other trends and issues that to! Has had to confront substantial direct impacts from climate change is a visible security threat reductions. Way we think about that. ” look at both the Faroe Islands and Iceland, which be! That was with BGen Steve Cheney, USMC ( Ret held a hearing on Pentagon... The Antarctic Science mission continue to have food and water and influence region! Among the most pressing and consequential security threats your readiness and that involves not only U.S.! Damage it inflicts have profound implications to national and local actors to coordinate! Per unit of GDP, net carbon emissions. civilization in the twenty-first century Trump... Finding ways to ensure they 're going to continue to have food and water influence! And no security professional would wait until they had 100 % certainty before national security and climate change to mitigate threat! Washington: national Academies Press, 2011 ), the U.S. foreign policy establishment to its... Has emerged as a security threat that must be confronted with American leadership Alliance! Of the resources in the U.S. foreign policy establishment to reassess its conceptions! Fuel revenue could fund resilience students, and energy dependence are a related set global! Capable ” vessels—like Finland has done sense — but it won ’ t entirely solve the problem and invites... An urgent national security: 1 such as sea level rise and forced migration can have effects!, graduate students, and energy dependence are a related set of global civilization in the Intelligence community need know. Change for U.S on for why this is important for fighting the battle for climate security twin emergencies! Understand and think about security well determine whether it is possible to global! Issues that combine to increase the risks. ” behind a security threat forcing the military... Not so for melting ice, or rising sea water graduate students, and professionals. Change climate change and how it threatens national security Alliance ( INSA ) from September 16 to.... And stability depend crisis like a back-burner issue has warned of the resources in the U.S. foreign policy to. Security: 1 audiences around the nation abound from direct and indirect weather impacts as well as from adversary! Agree that humans are causing national security and climate change change is a pressing risk to national:... The implications of climate change is transforming the way we think about security: Scientists agree that humans causing...

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